This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.
In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Hybrid forms are sometimes used to d istinguish between initially identical terms WTO: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.
Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues.
Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations high percentage ages 65 and over need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest. This entry is a rank ordering of major crops and products starting with the most important.
This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfacesbut must be usable. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces.
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m, 2 2, to 3, m, 3 1, to 2, m, 4 to 1, m, and 5 under m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing.
Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces. This section includes Factbook -related material by topic.
This entry includes three subfields. This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.
The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC sq km, 69 sq mi or The Mall in Washington, DC 0. This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth.
It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.
This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.
Countries with high budget deficits relative to their GDPs generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits. This entry gives the location of the seat of government.
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.
Central bank discount rate: This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds. Child labor - children ages This entry gives the percent of children aged or the age range specified engaged in child labor. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children. Such labor may deprive them of the opportunity to attend school, oblige them to leave school prematurely, or require them to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: The majority of countries adhere to this practice.
In some cases, citizenship is conferred through the father or mother exclusively. Many states do not permit dual citizenship and the voluntary acquisition of citizenship in another country is grounds for revocation of citizenship.
Holding dual citizenship makes an individual legally obligated to more than one state and can negate the normal consular protections afforded to citizens outside their original country of citizenship.
In most countries citizenship can be acquired through the legal process of naturalization. The requirements for naturalization vary by state but generally include no criminal record, good health, economic wherewithal, and a period of authorized residency in the state.
This time period can vary enormously among states and is often used to make the acquisition of citizenship difficult or impossible. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Conventionsigned inrequires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.
The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: The prefix codes are based upon radio call-signs allocated by the International Telecommunications Union ITU to each country.
Sincethe International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has managed code standards and their allocation. This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year. This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea.
Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. This category deals with the means of exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet service provider entries.
This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere. This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data. The contraceptive prevalence rate is an indicator of health services, development, and women's empowerment.
It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example: Also see the Terminology note.
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Crude Oil - consumption: Crude Oil - exports: Crude Oil - imports: Crude Oil - production: Crude Oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels bbl. Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and its stocks trade net link fashion subunit.
This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.
This entry gives the official US Government digraph that precisely identifies every land entity without overlap, duplication, or omission.
AF, for example, is the data code for Afghanistan. This two-letter country code is a standardized geopolitical data element biggest stock market gains history in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication FIPS by the National Institute of Standards and Technology at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the Office of the Geographer and Global Issues at the Forex plexiglas Department of State.
The data code is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.
Cross-references various hydrographic data codes. Data codes - country: This information is presented in Appendix D: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes which includes the US Government approved Federal Information Processing Standards FIPS codes, the International Organization for Standardization ISO codes, and Internet codes for land entities.
Data codes - hydrographic: This information is presented in Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes which includes the International Hydrographic Organization IHO codes, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center ACIC; now a part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency or NIMA codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency DIA codes for hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet approved a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to the FIPS standard for country data codes.
In general, what is a commodity broker salary available as of 1 Januarywas used in the preparation of this edition. This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.
The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.
This entry gives the total amount of public foreign financial obligations. This entry describes a country's key derivative indian stock market today holiday features and trends and how they vary among regional, ethnic, and socioeconomic sub-populations. Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, fertility, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration.
Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. As fertility levels decline, the dependency ratio initially falls because the proportion of youths decreases while the national stock exchange exam syllabus of the population of working age increases.
As fertility levels continue to decline, dependency ratios eventually increase because the proportion of the population of working age starts to decline and the proportion of elderly persons continues to increase. A high total dependency ratio indicates that the working-age population and the overall economy face a greater burden to support and provide social services for youth and elderly persons, who are often economically dependent.
A high youth dependency ratio indicates that a greater investment needs to be made in schooling and other services for children. Increases in the elderly dependency ratio put added pressure on governments to fund pensions and healthcare.
As a population ages, the potential support ratio tends to fall, meaning there are fewer potential workers to support the elderly. This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state. This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.
The US Government has diplomatic relations with independent states, including of the UN members excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia, and the US itself. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 3 independent states that are not in the UN - Holy See, Switzerland, and Tuvalu. Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of missionembassy address, mailing addresstelephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of the foreign missionnovember elections stock market crashes address, telephone number, FAX number, consulate general locations, consulate locations, honorary consulate general locations, and honorary consulate locations.
This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or derivative indian stock market today holiday. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
Distribution of Family Income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.
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The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.
If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.
Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Economic aid - donor: This entry refers to net official development assistance ODA from OECD nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations.
The entry does not cover other official flows OOF or private flows. Economic aid - recipient: This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance ODF to recipient countries.
The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations.
Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments. This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development, and management of productive resources, i.
This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.
It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt hours.
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt hours. Electricity - from fossil fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gasexpressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Electricity - from other renewable sources: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermalexpressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kWto produce electricity.
A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt hours. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes. Electricity - production by source: This entry indicates the percentage share of annual electricity production of each energy source.
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These are fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, and other solar, geothermal, and wind. This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point. Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government.
There are a total of separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows: Main INDEX Ranks Geography Climate Maps Flags. Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos Keeling Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island.
France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna.
UK - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands.
US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island.